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DM2E digitised manuscripts to Europeana

AthenaPlus: Access to cultural heritage networks for Europeana

Judaica Link: Linking reference works of Jewish culture and history online

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Judaica Europeana News and Press Releases

This vimeo makes it easy to see what partners can get out of their
collaboration with Europeana.

Europeana Publishing Framework table b

Evronot, a 16th century Jewish calendar from the collection of the Frankfurt University Library

The workings and signing of a marriage contract, Wellcome Library CC BY.

Graphic: Europeana Music Channel web page

Chosen by experts: try the test version of the Europeana Music Channel.

Document: List of tradespeople

A list of candidates for the Jewish Community Council in Lubien in central Poland, dated 15.5.1931, gives their names, age and occupations (incl. shopkeepers, bakers, butchers and tailors), JHI.


Election day in Czestochowa, 1916, YIVO.

Online pages from Das Jüdische Hamburg resource and LOD version

Sample page from the encyclopedia ‘Das Jüdische Hamburg’ with the Linked Open Data version from JudaicaLink. This online resource is based on the book Das Jüdische Hamburg – Ein historisches Nachschlagewerk.


Kindergarten and Community School, Bialystok, 1918, JDC Archives.

Online page from Encyclopedia of Jews in East Europe and LOD version

DM2E Pundit Introduction from DM2E on Vimeo.

LODLAM Challenge 2013 winner: Pundit from simonefonda

The Pundit team will receive a $2000 cash prize as well as the bragging rights that come with overcoming a field of tough competitors and some of the finest and most marketable projects from the linked cultural heritage domain.

Migration Boat

Emigrants on a ship arriving at Ellis Island, USA, 1913.
Europeana provider: Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Europeana home page

The Europeana portal enables exploration of the digital resources of Europe's museums, libraries, archives and audio-visual collections. In a multilingual space, users can engage, share and be inspired by the currently 20 million items from Europe's cultural and scientific heritage.

Seder hagadah Toledo Museum

Seder hagadah shel pesaj: Im pitron belashon sefardi. Livorno, Shelomo Belforte, 1852 © Sephardi Museum, Toledo featured in the Judaica Europeana Newsletter.

Linked Open Data from europeana on Vimeo.

Simple animation to explain what Linked Open Data is and why it's a good thing, both for users and for data providers.
To find more information about Europeana's linked data pilot, visit http://data.europeana.eu. If you'd like to read more on our open data policy, find it at http://pro.europeana.eu/support-for-open-data

Europeana Open Culture 2010: Highlights, Tweets & Photos from europeana on Vimeo.

Photographs, tweets and highlights from the Europeana Open Culture 2010 conference in Amsterdam, October 14th-15th, as well as the pre-conference day in The Hague on October 13th.

TWIL #24: Europeana Open Culture Conference
from Jaap van de Geer on Vimeo

Jonathan Purday (Europeana), Liam Wyatt (on Wikipedia), Nathan Yergler (Creative Commons) and James Crawford (Google Books) interviewed in this episode of This Week in Libraries


Twapperkeeper archive: http://summarizr.labs.eduserv.org.uk/?hashtag=openculture2010 #openculture2010

March 2017
The Europeana Publishing Framework – What is it and how can you benefit?
Europeana is evolving. Technology is ever improving. The future Europeana offers the ability to take what the data partners provide and use it. For innovation. For education. For research. For business. For personal enjoyment.

The Europeana team has developed four tiers of participation in Europeana. What data partners provide will depend on their own agendas and capabilities, but the higher the quality of information provided by data partners, the more benefit they will create for cultural heritage institutions and their audiences.

The publishing framework below and right clarifies the relationship between Europeana and its data partners. The framework clearly outlines what Europeana will do for heritage institutions depending on the content and metadata they decide to make available.
Europeana Publishing Framework table a

February 2016
FID Judaica
Congratulations to Judaica Europeana partners Dr Rachel Heuberger of Frankfurt University Library and Professor Kai Eckert of Stuttgart Media University and JudaicaLink on winning a 1 million euros grant from the German Science Foundation (DFG) for a pioneering project in Jewish Studies and Linked Open Data.

FID Judaica is an expert information service which will enrich data by a process of linking them automatically with external information in the Semantic Web. In this way it will provide wide-ranging contexts for Jewish heritage resources. The project will also support innovative retrieval.

FID Judaica will build on the achievements of Judaica Europeana in integrating large-scale data and of JudaicaLink, which published in a Linked Open Data format some of the most valuable reference works of Jewish heritage such as the YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. We shall post more information on FID Judaica and its progress in the coming months.

October 2015
News from Europeana
White papers for establishing international interoperable rights statements
Over the last 15 months, representatives from the Europeana and Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) networks, in partnership with Creative Commons, have been developing a collaborative approach to internationally interoperable rights statements that can be used to communicate the copyright status of cultural objects published via the DPLA and Europeana platforms. The purpose of these rights statements is to provide end users of our platforms with easy to understand information on what they can and cannot do with digital items that they encounter via these platforms. We also anticipate that these statements will be used by other cultural heritage aggregators across the globe, and see these statements as the initial effort towards international interoperability around standardized rights statements.

Read more

September 2015
Behind the scenes at Europeana
Re-design and maintenance work has been going on over the summer, which means the publication of the latest data sets from Judaica Europeana partners are due online in October. More books and periodicals from the Alliance Israelite Universelle, a portrait collection from the Hungarian Jewish Archives and the archival collection of the Ostrava community from the Jewish Museum in Prague.

Meanwhile Europeana is working on enhancing users’ experience with the introduction of curated thematic channels, which will bring together objects, texts and sounds from different collections. The first preview of the Music Channel comes from Europeana Sounds. The channel will grow to include more content – a potential to showcase Jewish music collections.

May 2015
Historical community records and early books from the Jewish Historical Institute in Poland integrated in Europeana.
These priceless collections include books from the 16-18th centuries and documents relating to a number of Jewish communities and their membership, councils and other institutions etc. Read more

April 2015
An exceptional digital collection of Moroccan Jewish heritage has been published in
Europeana – the interface for Europe’s archives, libraries and museums by the Judaica Europeana team. This varied collection from the Center of Judeo-Moroccan Culture in Brussels includes art, objects of worship, clothing, jewellery, photographs, prints and documents. Read more

March 2015
The results of our collaboration with the Center for Jewish History harvested on Europeana
The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research has contributed large quantities of books, photographs and other outstanding archival collections. The photographic archive of Jewish life in Eastern Europe documents a vibrant Jewish world with a developing industrial proletariat and a rising middle class. Read more

Rare books, periodicals and civil records from the Leo Baeck Institute published in Europeana
The LBI, a unique repository of source material on the history of German-speaking Jews, has worked with Judaica Europeana to contribute to Europeana a selection of rare books, art, illustrated books and periodicals as well as archival collections that contain manuscripts, correspondence and civil records. Read more

20 February 2015
"Das Jüdische Hamburg" online, just in time for International Open Data Day
Kai Eckert of JudaicaLink announced today the publication of the first data version of the encyclopedia ‘Das Jüdische Hamburg’.

‘Das Jüdische Hamburg’ is a free online resource based on the book Das Jüdische Hamburg – Ein historisches Nachschlagewerk, Wallstein, Göttingern (2006), which was published on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Institute for the History of the German Jews (Institut für die Geschichte der deutschen Juden, IGdJ). The Encyclopedia contains articles in German by notable scholars about persons, locations and events of the history of Jewish communities in Hamburg.

Here is an example concept.
As usual, the best way to browse the data is by browsing the original encyclopedia and then to use our bookmarklet to switch to our data view:

DJH LOD (Drag and drop this link to your bookmarks. Click it in your bookmarks while on a DJH article to access the data view).

JudaicaLink and the encyclopedia will be presented at the Open Data Day in Mannheim.

January 2015
JDC First World War era records in Europeana
The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee’s 1914-1918 collection has been published in Europeana by Judaica Europeana in collaboration with the DM2E project. This historic collection dates from the establishment of ‘the Joint’ in 1914. Among the highlights of this unique archival collections are photographs and eyewitness reports from Bialystok, Cracow, Kovno, Monastir, Salonica, Vilna, and Warsaw. The Remittance lists documenting aid sent to relatives overseas are of great genealogical importance. Read more

24 July 2014
Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry released in LOD
The first release of the Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry as Linked Open Data has been published on JudaicaLink following the release of YIVO’s Encyclopaedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Details on both can be found here, together with basic statistics. There are also bookmarklets for an easy access of the Linked Data representations. JudaicaLink now provides access to 22,808 concepts in English (~ 10%) and Russian (~ 90%), mostly locations and persons. The next steps will be the creation of links between the two works and to external sources like DBpedia or Geonames. More information

17 June 2014
YIVO participates in a Linked Open Data project
The first release of The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe in Linked Open Data (LOD) format is now available at http://data.judaicalink.org/data/yivo/YIVO. This demonstration version of topic headings from the Encyclopedia as LOD is part of a pilot project by JudaicaLink, which is affiliated with DM2E (Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana) and Judaica Europeana. The goal of this pioneering project is to enrich online reference works and digital humanities in Jewish studies by creating a framework for new links between different encyclopedias and other Jewish content on the Internet. More information

26 March 2014
Challenge to scholars to take up digital tools
PUNDIT AND ASK, the new tools for collaborative research in the humanities are freely available to all. PUNDIT is a powerful semantic annotation tool that enables you to create annotations to web pages in Linked Open Data – whether working on texts, graphics, pictures, or maps. ASK is a web service that enables you to create and query notebooks based on annotations made in Pundit. The tools make it possible to share annotations with colleagues, reuse them to develop interesting visualisations and create a semantic knowledge network.

The tools come with a suite of multilingual manuals and step-by-step tutorials. Developed by the award winning team at Net7, our partners in the Digital Manuscripts to Europeana project, they are available at DM2E.eu/digital-humanities

13 June 2013
Pundit wins the international LODLAM Challenge
Pundit, the semantic annotation tool developed by Italian developers Net7 as part of the DM2E project in which Judaica Europeana is a partner, has won the Linked Open Data in Galleries Libraries Archives and Museums Challenge. Pundit enables humanities researchers to create RDF annotations on digital content from Europeana and the wider Linked Data Web. It promises to offer the next generation of humanities scholars a means to connect and contextualise the vast amount of digital heritage now being made available via Europeana and other cultural heritage portals.

The LODLAM Challenge ran over the course of 6 months and involved a first round of community voting on the LODLAM website. It culminated in all finalists pitching their projects to a panel of judges at the LODLAM Summit held in Montreal, Canada on 13 June 2013.

Simone Fonda, one of the lead developers behind Pundit who pitched the tool in Montreal, said of the team’s success: ‘A very exciting competition, with a lot of interesting projects. And I’m not only referring to the finalists. We are working hard to bring Pundit to the next level and this important reward will fuel future developments with new and fresh enthusiasm. The whole team is just so happy!”

18 December 2012
Leaving Europe: A new life in America
To mark the beginning of a unique digital collaboration, the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) and Europeana announce the launch of Leaving Europe: A new life in America. The virtual exhibition tells the story of European emigration to the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. Jointly curated by the two digital libraries, the exhibition uses photographs, manuscripts, broadsheets, paintings, letters, audio, government documents and other unique materials to chart people's journeys across the European continent and their settlement in the United States.

12 September 2012
Europeana opens up data on 20 million cultural items
Europe's digital library Europeana has been described as the 'jewel in the crown' of the sprawling web estate of EU institutions. It aggregates digitised books, paintings, photographs, recordings and films from over 2,200 contributing heritage organisations across Europe - including major bodies such as the British Library, the Louvre and the Rijksmuseum.

Today Europeana is opening up data about all 20 million of the items it holds under the CC0 rights waiver. This means that anyone can reuse the data for any purpose - whether using it to build applications to bring cultural content to new audiences in new ways, or analysing it to improve our understanding of Europe's cultural and intellectual history. More on this story from the Guardian news datablog.

4 May 2012
Judaica Europeana brings online 3.7 million digital objects from Jewish collections via Europeana
Judaica Europeana – an international network of museums, libraries and archives – exceeded its first target by uploading 3.7 million digital objects to Europeana.eu, Europe’s cultural heritage portal and digital services platform. Full story

28 October 2011
Digital Agenda: encouraging digitisation of EU culture to help boost growth
The European Commission in Brussels has adopted a Recommendation asking EU Member States to step up their efforts, pool their resources and involve the private sector in digitising cultural material. This is essential to make European cultural heritage more widely available and to boost growth in Europe's creative industries. The digitised material should be made available through Europeana, Europe's digital library, archive and museum (see www.europeana.eu).

31 May 2011
From Dada to Surrealism: Jewish Avant-Garde Artists from Romania, 1910–1938 This virtual exhibition hosted on Europeana unveils some of the works on show from 1 June to 2 October 2011 in the Jewish Historical Museum, a Judaica Europeana partner in Amsterdam. The virtual exhibition will launch in English and Dutch, and will soon be available in more languages. New features include a zooming option which provides detailed examination of the images. The next Europeana virtual exhibition to launch is from the Jewish Museum London.

26 May 2011
Behind the London Jewish Museum's ambitious digital archive project
The work for Judaica Europeana by its museum partner in London is featured in Wired magazine. Read more ...

11 March 2011
The first batch of Judaica Europeana collections has been uploaded on Europeana. It includes:

One part of the Freimann Collection at the Frankfurt University Library which was the largest and most significant Judaica collection on the European continent before 1933. As a historical resource this collection is of exceptional value. The texts reflect Jewish life in Europe as well as the relations of Jews to non-Jews in pre-and post-Emancipation times. Access the collection here.

From the Paris Yiddish Centre's Medem Library, which holds the largest Yiddish collection in Europe, 690 audio recordings of most popular songs from East-Central Europe: including Yiddish songs, klezmer music, synagogue choral music and songs from the repertoire of the Yiddish theatre and musical comedies. Listen to the songs here.

Large quantities of Judaica Europeana digitized resources from museums, libraries and archives will come online later this year.

22 February 2011
The Jewish Week (New York)
'Today, Jewish life and culture in Europe is on an upswing. The recently launched Judaica Europeana project, for example, led by a consortium of Jewish libraries, museums and historical societies throughout Europe, seeks to identify and centralize access to and knowledge about Jewish content in European collections. As the Jewish expansion in Europe continues to surprise and perplex many Jews elsewhere, it is worth remembering those who were committed to the renewal of European Jewry even in the immediate aftermath of its attempted annihilation. Their hope that books and libraries would contribute to the revival of former cultural and intellectual institutions and to the creation of new ones that would both honor European Jewry’s past and ensure its future, is perhaps finally coming to fruition.' Read the complete article by Miriam Intrator on the debate over where to send Europe’s salvaged Jewish libraries after World War II.

8 January 2011
Judaica Europeana Newsletter, no. 2, 2011
The second issue of Judaica Europeana's newsletter presents highlights of partners' collections, two virtual exhibits and reports about the growing network of museums, archives and libaries that will provide online access to Jewish content through Europeana. See more on the newsletter page.

26 November 2010
Images of Greek Jews is a virtual exhibition from the Jewish Museum of Greece in Athens.
It is a small selection of 20th century photographs from the Museum’s extensive photographic archive currently being digitized in the framework of the Judaica Europeana project. Family portraits, school children, scouts and others groups from Athens, Chania, Corfu, Ioannina, Thessaloniki and Volos before and after World War I and II, capture Greek Jews at formal occasions, school trips or simply at leisure. They convey a sense of a flourishing and well integrated community.

11 February 2010
Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA)
Project will provide online Judaica access


Press releases

4 May 2012
Judaica Europeana brings online 3.7 million digital objects from Jewish collections via Europeana

Judaica Europeana – an international network of museums, libraries and archives – exceeded its first target by uploading 3.7 million digital objects to Europeana.eu, Europe’s cultural heritage portal and digital services platform.

Judaica Europeana www.judaica-europeana.eu was launched in 2010 to digitize European Jewish collections and provide an integrated access point online. The network is led by the European Association for Jewish Culture and Frankfurt University Library. It has been co-funded by the European Commission, Rothschild Foundation (Hanadiv) Europe and project partners. Today the network includes 25 institutions in Europe, Israel and the US.

A vast digital archive online
The project created a vast digital archive of Jewish books, documents, objects, photographs, postcards, posters, music recordings and videos. It is an exceptional resource for the research, study and enjoyment of Jewish heritage.

The digitized material ranges from 16-18th century documents on the Venice Ghetto from the Venice State Archives, the Jewish museums’ collections from Amsterdam, Athens, London and Toledo; the extensive archive and library collections of Frankfurt University and Alliance Israelite Universelle, the archival collections from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw and the Hungarian Jewish Archives in Budapest, and much more. A priceless collection of Yiddish press, books and music comes from the Medem Library in Paris: 4,000 recordings of Jewish music from East-Central Europe can be played online. The most extensive collection of music and scores comes from the French Centre for Jewish Music (CFMJ) in Paris. The National Library of Israel provided access to a collection of manuscripts and rare books, and will contribute more.

Europeana’s multilingual search engine, tagging facilities and vocabularies provide a unique finding aid for browsing all the collections at europeana.eu. To-date over 2,000 heritage institutions in 33 countries provide access to their digital collections to Europeana.

Building on the success and experience of the first two years
The first two years of the project culminated in a successful project review by a panel of EC experts, an international conference at the Italian National Library in Rome and the launch of a Virtual Tour of Jewish Frankfurt. This and other Judaica online exhibitions can be found on www.judaica-europeana.eu home page alongside illustrated newsletters and many other resources.

“We are delighted with the network’s achievements and shall continue to work together to bring more priceless collections online. We are planning more workshops, e-newsletters and exhibitions that will reach out to researchers, students, heritage professionals and the general public” said Lena Stanley-Clamp the Co-ordinator of Judaica Europeana and Director of the European Association for Jewish Culture. “The Linked Open Data environment is transforming the web. Thanks to Europeana, a leading force in this field, we are well placed to provide integrated access to Jewish heritage collections.” (For more information on Europeana and Linked Open Data see http://vimeo.com/36752317 )

Dr Rachel Heuberger of Frankfurt University Library and Chair of the Consortium of Judaica Europeana partners said “The Judaica Europeana project has enabled us to showcase Jewish collections in the context of their creation ― as an integral part of European heritage alongside other collections. We would welcome new partners, who wish to join us and give an international exposure to their Jewish collections.”

The European Association for Jewish Culture and Judaica Europeana are members of the Europeana Network of heritage institutions from 33 countries. They are also partners in a new European project ‘Digital Manuscripts to Europeana’ http://dm2e.eu/ led by Humboldt University in Berlin.

A selection of images from Judaica Europeana's digital collections – click on captions to open full size image:

Venice ghetto Collection box Boyscouts on the Acropolis Homeless songsheet Purim engraving Judengasse Judaica Europeana team
Mme Luci Dreyfus Seminary Minutebook Lissitzky engraving Pesach Seder in Siena Logica
Mme Lucie Dreyfus leaving the Rennes prison, Alliance Israélite Universelle Jewish Theological Seminary, Wroclaw, Jewish HIstorical Institute, Warsaw Sefer Zichronot (Book of Minutes), Pest, 1828, Hungarian Jewish Archives, Budapest Hadgadyo: engraving by El Lissitzky, 1919, Paris Yiddish Centre – Medem Library Oifn Pripetshik, record label, 1940s, Centre français des musiques juives, Paris Pesach Seder, 1929, Stella di David e Tricolore: Siena community Logica Sapientis Rabbi Simeonis, M. Maimonides, Sebastian Münster, 1527, National LIbrary of Israel

The JUDAICA Europeana consortium

The project is led by
European Association for Jewish Culture, London

Judaica Sammlung der Universitätsbibliothek
der Goethe Universität, Frankfurt/Main

Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris
Amitié, Centre for Research and Innovation, Bologna
Ben Uri Gallery – The London Jewish Museum of Art
Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, Amsterdam
British Library, London
Center for Jewish History, New York
Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem
Centre français des musiques juives, Paris
Hungarian Jewish Archives, Budapest
Institute for Jewish Policy Research, London
JDC Archives, New York
Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw
Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam
Jewish Museum Berlin
Jewish Museum, Frankfurt/Main
Jewish Museum London
Jewish Museum of Greece, Athens
Leopold Zunz Zentrum, Halle-Wittenberg
Makash, Jerusalem
Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid
National Library of Israel, Jerusalem
Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Rome
Paris Yiddish Centre – Medem Library
Royal Library: The National Library of Denmark
and Copenhagen University Library

Salomon Ludwig Steinheim Institut, Duisburg
Sephardi Museum, Toledo

Judaica Europeana online exhibitions can be accessed at www.judaica-europeana.eu

• A Virtual Tour of Jewish Frankfurt from the Jewish Museum of Frankfurt and Frankfurt University Library
• Yiddish Theatre in London from the Jewish Museum London
• Jewish Britain: A History in 50 Objects from the Jewish Museum of London
• From Dada to Surrealism: Jewish Avantgarde Artists in Romania 1909-1939 from the Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam
• 150 Years of Achievement in Education from the Alliance Israelite Universelle, Paris
• Networking in Europe: Jewish Postcards from the Hungarian Jewish Archives
• Jewish Neighbourhoods of Greece and Portraits of Greek Jews from the Jewish Museum of Greece, Athens
• The Star of David and the Italian Flag from ICCU/MiBAC, Rome: crowd-sourced, user-generated exhibits
• Everything Possible: JDC and the Children of the DP Camps.

The benefits for users and collection holders:
Europeana‘s multilingual search engine helps users to explore diverse collections from a single access point. The search engine provides subject-related items held in other European collections so that Judaica content is enriched by association with other material. This makes cross-border and interdisciplinary study possible in new ways.
Europeana drives traffic to the collections’ sites by linking users back to the content provider's website.
Users are able to see videos, look at images, read texts and listen to audio material in the same space.
Europeana provides a set of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) for use on partners’ websites and users mobile phones.

Judaica Europeana’s technical achievements
Integrated online access to 3.7 million digital objects
Standardization and ingestion of diverse cross-domain cataloguing data
Laying the foundations for integration of content in the new semantic web of Linked Data
Deployment of critical elements of Linked Data: vocabularies and collaborative semantic tools
Development of knowledge management pilot: the database of digital materials on Haskala – the Jewish Enlightenment

More information on Judaica Europeana at www.judaica-europeana.eu
More information about Europeana at www.europeana.eu/portal/aboutus.html
For further information contact Lstanley-clamp@jpr.org.uk
European Association for Jewish Culture fosters creativity and promotes online access to Jewish culture in Europe.

11 February 2010
Judaica Europeana: 10  institutions in London, Frankfurt, Athens, Bologna, Budapest, Paris, Rome and Warsaw join forces to offer worldwide access to the treasures of European Jewish culture.

German translation
Pressemitteilung - Judaica Europeana: 10 Institutionen in Frankfurt, London, Athen, Bologna, Budapest, Paris, Rom und Warschau arbeiten Hand in Hand und bieten weltweit einen Zugang zu den jüdischen Kulturgütern Europas an.

Greek translation - Δελτίο Τύπου
Judaica Europeana: 10 ιδρύματα στο Λονδίνο, Φρανκφούρτη, Αθήνα, Μπολόνια, Βουδαπέστη, Παρίσι, Ρώμη και Βαρσοβία, ενώνουν τις δυνάμεις τους για να προσφέρουν πρόσβαση σε παγκόσμιο επίπεδο στους θησαυρούς του Ευρωπαϊκού Εβραϊκού Πολιτισμού.

Hungarian translation
Judaica Europeana: 10 intézmény Londonban, Frankfurtban, Athénben, Bolognában, Budapesten, Párizsban, Rómában és Varsóban egyesítette erőit, hogy világszerte elérhetővé tegye az európai zsidó kultúra kincseit.

Italian translation
Judaica Europeana: a Roma, Bologna, Londra, Francoforte, Atene, Budapest, Parigi e Varsavia dieci istituzioni uniscono le loro forze per offrire l’accesso ai tesori della cultura ebraica in Europa.

French translation
Judaica Europeana: dix institutions de Paris,  Londres, Francfort, Athènes, Budapest, Bologne, Rome et Varsovie unissent leurs efforts pour mettre à la disposition du monde entier les trésors de la culture juive européenne.